Threat model & accepted risks

This page is constantly evolving. So check back over time to see new additions.

Administrator privileges

We consider Nextcloud administrators ultimately trusted. It is for example expected behavior that a Nextcloud administrator can execute arbitrary code.

Denial of Service

Due to the usage of the PHP scripting language we do consider Denial of Service not something that can at the moment be completely prevented. See also the article "PHP Denial of Service Attack Revisited".

For this reason while we do fix and acknowledge specific Denial of Service attacks we do generally not consider DoS a bounty-worthy vulnerability.

Local external storage systems are considered trusted

We do consider local mounted storage systems as trusted, so if a symlink or something else is configured on the external storage the Nextcloud server will follow it with the web server privileges.

For this reason we do recommend administrators to only use the external storage mount for ultimately trusted content.


Nextcloud can be configured to encrypt data at rest. In this scenario we do prevent against storage administrators mainly, we are aware that a Nextcloud administrator could still intercept the user password to manually decrypt the encryption key. We do thus only consider attack scenarios bounty-worthy if they include external parties.

Features intentionally marked as insecure

Some features in Nextcloud are intentionally marked as insecure and disabled by default (plus have a big warning above them). One example includes the preview providers such as the LibreOffice preview provider. At the moment we consider vulnerabilities in those disabled features as not bounty-worthy.

Audit logging

The audit logging feature in Nextcloud is at the moment missing some logs for things like "Accessing previews of files", these will be added in a future release and known issues are tracked in our issue tracker.

Version disclosure

At the moment we consider version disclosure an accepted risk as an attacker can enumerate service versions using other means as well. (e.g. comparing behaviour)

Attacks involving other Android apps on the device

We do consider attacks involving other Android apps on the device as minimal risk, also especially considering that the Nextcloud Android apps stores synced files locally accessible on the device. (since no Content Provider is yet implemented).

Content spoofing

Generally speaking we consider content spoofing not a bounty-worthy vulnerability.

User enumeration

We do not consider user enumeration a security risk as for convenience and for features such as Server-to-Server sharing this is an expected behaviour.

Brute force of credentials

At the moment we do not consider bruteforcing of credentials or a missing password treshold eligible vulnerabilities. In the case of Nextcloud we currently expect people to protect their instance using measures such as fail2ban. We do have a native anti-bruteforce protection.

Server-side request forgery

Nextcloud ships with multiple features that perform sending requests to other hosts, we do consider this accepted behaviour and advocate people to deploy Nextcloud into its own seggregated network segment.